Tag Archives: Written Document

Arbitration Agreement – Need Not be Signed by All the Parties

Section 7(3) of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act provides that the arbitration agreement shall be in writing, which is a mandatory requirement. Section 7(4) states that the arbitration agreement shall be in writing, if it is a document signed by all the parties. But a perusal of clauses (b) and (c) of Section 7(4) would show that a written document which may not be signed by the parties even then it can be arbitration agreement. Section 7(4)(b) provides that an arbitration agreement can be culled out from an exchange of letters, telex, telegrams or other means of telecommunication which provide a record of the agreement. Govind Rubber Limited v. Louis Dreyfus Commodities Asia Private Limited, (2015) 13 SCC 477.

In Rukmanbai Gupta v. Collector, (1980) 4 SCC 556, Hon’ble Supreme Court held that Arbitration agreement is not required to be in any particular form. What is required to be ascertained is whether the parties have agreed that if the dispute arises between them in respect of the subject matter of contract, such dispute shall be referred to arbitration, then such an arrangement would spell out an arbitration agreement.

Section 7(4) of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act defines an agreement to be an arbitration agreement is in writing if it contained (a) a document signed by the parties; (b) an exchange of letters, telex, telegrams or other means of telecommunication [including communication through electronic means] which provide a record of the agreement; or (c) an exchange of statements of claim and defence in which the existence of the agreement is alleged by one party and not denied by the other.

Thus, it can be safely concluded that an arbitration agreement need not be signed by the parties if the record of the agreement is provided by exchange of letters, telex, telegrams or other means of telecommunication. Sub-section 4(c) of Section 7 of the Act provides that there can be an exchange of statements of claim and defence in which the existence of the agreement is alleged by one party and not denied by the other. Due to development of Science and Technology, the statutory recognition of agreement in circumstances mentioned in clauses (b) and (c) of Section 7(4) of the Act, can be easily understood in the present day of E-commerce and internet purchases, tele purchases, ticket booking on internet where agreements are entered in standard forms of contract and terms and conditions are agreed upon. In such agreement, if the identity of the parties is established and there is a record of agreement and if there is an Arbitration clause showing that parties are ad-idem, then the signature is not a mandatory requirement under clauses (b) and (c) of sub-section (4) of the Act or under sub-section (5) of Section 7 of the Act. M/s Blue Star Ltd. v. M/s Z-Square Shopping Mall Pvt. Ltd., 2018 (129) ALR 836.

 

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Arbitration Agreement – Signature is Not a Formal Requirement

Section 7(3) of the Arbitration and Concilitaion Act states that the arbitration agreement shall be in writing, which is a mandatory requirement. Section 7(4) states that the arbitration agreement shall be in writing, if it is a document signed by all the parties. But a perusal of Clauses (b) and (c) of Section 7(4) would show that a written document which may not be signed by the parties, even then it can be arbitration agreement. Section 7(4)(b) provides that an agreement can be culled out from an exchange of letters, telex, telegrams or other means of telecommunication which provide a record of the agreement.
Reading the provision it can safely be concluded that an arbitration agreement is provided by exchange of letters, telex, telegrams or other means of telecommunication. Section 7(c) provides that there can be an arbitration agreement in the exchange of statements of claims and defence in which the existence of the agreement is alleged by one party and not denied by the other. If it can be prima facie shown that the parties are at ad idem, then mere fact of one party not signing the agreement cannot absolve himself from the liability under the agreement. In the present day of E-commerce, in cases of internet purchases, tele purchases, ticket booking on the internet and in standard forms of contract, terms and conditions are agreed upon. In such agreements, if the identity of the parties is established, and there is a record of agreement it becomes and arbitration agreement if there is an arbitration clause showing ad idem between the parties. Therefore, signature is not a formal requirement under Section 7(4)(b) or 7(4)(c) or under 7(5) of the Act. M/s Govind Rubber Ltd. v. M/s Loids Dreyfus Commodities Asia P. Ltd., 2015 (108) ALR 735.

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