Tag Archives: Selection

Requirement of Public Employment – Is Transparency

An important requirement of public employment is transparency. Therefore, the advertisement must specify the number of posts available for selection and recruitment. The qualifications and other eligibility criteria for such posts should be explicitly provided and the schedule of recruitment process should be published with certainty and clarity. The advertisement should also specify the rules under which the selection is to be made and in absence of the rules, the procedure under which the selection is likely to be undertaken. This is necessary to prevent arbitrariness and to avoid change of criteria of selection after the selection process is commenced, thereby unjustly benefiting someone at the cost of others. Ram Krishna v. State of U.P., 2018 (3) AWC 2702.

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Appointment Made For a Fixed Term – Comes to an End on Expiry of Period

When an appointment, even if legal and valid, but contractual one, is governed by certain terms and conditions thereof, parties are bound to adhere to those conditions and cannot travel beyond that. Once appointment is made for fixed tenure, it would come to an end automatically on expiry of period for which appointment was made. The termination is automatic by efflux of time on expiry of said period. The continuance of person thereafter would not be on the basis of said agreement pursuant whereto incumbent was was appointed for a fixed tenure, it has already come to an end by efflux of time. Raj Kumar Singh v. State of U.P., 2018 (5) AWC 4967.

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Irregular and illegal Appointment – Distinction Between

The distinction between the term “irregular” and “illegal” appointment has been considered in State of Jammu and Kashmir v. District Bar Association, 2016 (12) SCALE 534. It was held as under:         “The third aspect of Umadevi which bears notice is the distinction between an “irregular” and “illegal” appointment. While answering the question of whether an appointment is irregular or illegal, the Court would have to enquire as to whether the appointment process adopted was tainted by the vice of non-adherence to an essential prerequisite or is liable to be faulted on account of the lack of a fair process of recruitment. There may be varied circumstances in which an ad hoc or temporary appointment may be made. The power of the employer to make a temporary appointment, if the exigencies of the situation so demand, cannot be disputed. The exercise of power however stands vitiated if it is found that the exercise undertaken (a) was not in the exigencies of administration; or (b) where the procedure adopted was violative of Articles 14 and 16 of the Constitution; and/or (c) where the recruitment process was overridden by the vice of nepotism, bias or mala fides.” Dr. Ram Sevak Dubey v. University of Allahabad, (2018) 3 UPLBEC 2199.

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Irregular Appointment – Without any mistake of the Appointee

Even though it is settled that a person appointed erroneously on a post must not reap the benefits of wrongful appointment jeopardizing the interests of the meritorious and worthy candidates; in cases where a wrongful or irregular appointment is made without any mistake on the part of the appointee and upon discovery of such error or irregularity the appointee is terminated, the Court had taken a sympathetic view in the light of various factors including bona fide of the candidate in such appointment and length of service of the candidate after such appointment. Ram Naresh Singh v. State of U.P., (2018) 3 UPLBEC 2134.

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Requirements For Appointment – Cannot be changed during Ongoing Selection Process

Even if the qualification prescribed in the advertisement was contrary to the qualification provided under the recruitment rules, it would have been open for the candidate concerned to challenge the notification alleging denial of opportunity. On the other hand, having taken note of the specific qualification prescribed in the notification it would not be open for a candidate to assume that the qualification possessed by such candidate is equivalent and thereby seek consideration for appointment nor will it even be open for the employer to change the requirements midstream during the ongoing selection process or accept any qualification other than the one notified since it would amount to denial of opportunity to those who possess the qualification but had not applied as it was not notified. Bank of India v. Aarya K. Babu, (2019) 8 SCC 587

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Eligibility for Selection – Possession of Prescribed Qualification

The principle enunciated by the Hon’ble Supreme Court in State of U.P. v. Vijay Kumar Mishra, (2017) 11 SCC 521 are as under:
“The position is fairly well settled that when a set of eligibility qualifications are prescribed under the rules and an applicant who does not possess the prescribed qualification for the post at the time of submission of application or by the cut-off date, if any, prescribed under the rules or stated in the advertisement, is not eligible to be considered for such post. It is relevant to note here that in the rules or in the advertisement no power was vested in any authority to make any relaxation relating to the prescribe qualifications for the post. Therefore, the case of a candidate who did not come within the zone of consideration for the post could not be compared with a candidate who possessed the prescribed qualifications and was considered and appointed to the post. Ramesh Chand v. State of Haryana, (2017) 11 SCC 516.

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Public Employment – Transparency

An important requirement of public employment is that of transparency. Therefore, an advertisement must specify the number of posts available for selection and recruitment. The qualifications and other schedule of recruitment process should be published with certainty and clarity. The advertisement should also specify the rules under which the selection is to be made and in absence of the rules, the procedure under which the selection is likely to be undertaken. This is necessary to prevent arbitrariness and to avoid change of criteria of selection after the selection process is commenced, thereby unjustly benefiting someone at the cost of others. Renu v. District and Sessions Judge, (2014) 14 SCC 50.

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Employee has an interest to seniority and a right to be considered for promotion

Chances of promotion are not conditions of service, but negation of even the chance of promotion certainly amounts to variation in the conditions of service attracting infraction of Articles 14 and 16 of the Constitution of India. No employee has a right to particular position in the seniority list but all employees have a right to seniority since the same forms the basis of promotion.
An employee has always an interest to seniority and a right to be considered for promotion. If after integration, only the chances of promotion are affected, it would have been only a case of heartburn of an individual or a few individuals which is only to be ignored, as held by the Hon’ble Apex Court in T.N. Education Department Ministerial and General Subordinate Services Association v. State of Tamil Nadu, (1980) 3 SCC 97.
In S.S. Bola v. B.D. Sardana, (1997) 8 SCC 522, it was held as under:
“A distinction between the right to be considered for promotion and an interest to be considered for promotion has always been maintained. Seniority is a facet of interest. The rules prescribe the method of recruitment/selection. Seniority is governed by the rules existing as on the date of consideration for promotion. Seniority is required to be worked out according to the existing rules. No one has a vested right to promotion or seniority. But an officer has an interest to seniority acquired by working out the rules. The seniority should be taken away only by operation of valid law. Right to be considered for promotion is a rule prescribed by conditions of service. A rule which affects chances of promotion of a person relates to conditions of service. The rule/provision in an Act merely affecting the chances of promotion “would not be” regarded as varying the conditions of service. The chances of promotion are not conditions of service. A rule which merely affects the chances of promotion does not amount to change in the conditions of service. However, once a declaration of law, on the basis of existing rules, is made by a constitutional court and a mandamus is issued or direction given for its enforcement by preparing the seniority list, operation of the declaration of law and the mandamus and directions issued by the court is the result of the declaration of law but not the operation of the rules per se.” Panchraj Tiwari v. Madhya Pradesh State Electricity Board, (2014) 5 SCC 101.

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