Section 29-A of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 provides for the award to be made within a period of twelve months from the date the arbitral tribunal enters upon the reference. Sub-section (2) provides for an incentive in the form of fees to the arbitral tribunal if the award is made within a period of six months from the date the arbitral tribunal enters upon the reference. Time for making award as provided under sub-section (1), may be extended with the consent of parties for a further period of not exceeding six months. In the event, award is not made within the period specified under sub-section (1) or the extended period specified under sub-section (3), the mandate of the arbitrator(s) shall terminate unless the court has, either prior to or after the expiry of the period so specified, extend the period, provided that while extending the period, if the court finds that the proceedings have been delayed for the reasons attributable to the arbitral tribunal, then, it may order reduction of fees of arbitrator(s) by not exceeding five percent for each month of such delay. Thus, while sub-section (2) provides an incentive for disposal of arbitration proceeding within a time bound period, sub-section (4) provides for reduction in fees of the arbitral tribunal in the event award is not made within a period of twelve months or within extended period of six months.
The power to extend the period is vested in the parties who may extend the period by consent upto six months. The power to extend the period vested in court under sub-section (5), is required to be exercised by the court on application of mind. The period can be extended by court only for sufficient cause and on such terms and conditions as may be imposed by the court. Sub-section (6) further confers power to the court that while extending the period referred to in sub-section (4), it may substitute one or all of the arbitrators and if one or all of the arbitrators are substituted, the arbitral proceedings shall continue from the stage already reached and on the basis of the evidence and material already on record, and the arbitrator(s) appointed under this section shall be deemed to have received the said evidences and material. The arbitral tribunal so reconstituted shall be deemed to be in continuation of the previously appointed arbitral tribunal. To discourage the delay in conclusion of the arbitral proceedings, the court has been conferred power under sub-section (8) to impose actual or exemplary costs upon any of the parties. Jairath Constructions v. Triveni Engineering and Industries Ltd., 2018 (5) AWC 4676.